golden eagle diet

[127] The first record of a golden eagle eating eggs was recorded when a golden eagle was observed consuming Canada goose (Branta canadensis) eggs in eastern Idaho. In the video linked below (posted on RaptorView Research Institute’s Facebook page), the Golden Eagle was caught feeding on an elk that did not make it through the winter. Sellers, R. A., Valkenburg, P., Squibb, R. C., Dale, B. W., & Zarnke, R. L. 2011. [69][70] Although rare, tree squirrels have turned up as prey in some eagle nests in both North America and Eurasia. Snowcock will often weigh 2.5 to 3 kg (5.5 to 6.6 lb), whereas the female and male adult turkey weigh around 4 kg (8.8 lb) and 8 kg (18 lb), respectively. [198] Conflicts between white-tailed eagles and golden eagles over nesting sites occur with some frequency in some areas, but are unknown in other areas. Neale, J. C., Sacks, B. N., Jaeger, M. M., & McCullough, D. R. (1998). [36] The European rabbit appears to be secondary in Hungary, where it comprised 14.3%. If it is able to surprise the grouse, the eagle has a split second to grab the prey before it flies off. [1] Occasionally, golden eagles may even boldly predate these smaller species during migration in mid-flight, as was recorded at Hawk Mountain Sanctuary with a red-shouldered hawk. The importance of interspecific interactions for breeding-site selection: peregrine falcons seek proximity to raven nests. There are exceptions to this, however, when particularly bold, large raptorial birds seemingly range too far into a pair's home range. Kalmbach, E.R., Imler, R.H. & Arnold, L.W> 1964. [32][33] In general, the dietary breadth is greater in Eurasia than it is in North America, where eagles frequently only need to hunt two or three species throughout the nesting cycle. Martín, J., & López, P. 1996. & Bezzel, E. 1971. [43] Other reports from Alaska show the willow ptarmigan as secondary prey. [11][45] In the Alps, it is believed to be advantageous for eagles to nest below the meadows that host their Alpine marmot prey so they can fly downhill, a much easier flying method while carrying a heavy load than flying uphill. Goldens will sometimes hunt in pairs, with one Golden driving the prey towards the other eagle, or distracting the prey while the other eagle makes the kill. Martínez, J. E., Martínez, J. [11] Studies have revealed that the average golden eagle nest contains 3.57 species of prey, although there is considerable variation in the dietary breadth across the range, ranging from an average of 11.2 species in the French Pyrenees to a mere 1.4 in Alaska. [214] Adult wolverines appear to be one of the few conspecific mammal carnivores to actively pose a threat to golden eagles. [11] Similarly, amongst wolverines, "young and inexperienced" specimens are usually targeted as prey by golden eagles. In this, the golden eagle quarters low below the earth and then gradually swoops down on the prey. Several chases involving the golden chasing Verreaux's were witnessed but only one where a Verreaux's chased off the golden. Among wild bovids, eagles are reportedly the main predator of Saiga antelope (Saiga tatarica) calves in Mongolia and are regularly reported to take chamois (Rupicapra rupicapra) and Alpine ibex (Capra ibex) calves in Europe. In many parts of the golden eagle's range, ground squirrels are rare or absent, such as the British Isles, the Iberian Peninsula and some portions of central Eurasia. Unlike grouse, pheasants are not known to comprise more than half of the nest remains in any study, but they can be important nonetheless. [38][61][62] In Europe, where the large brown and mountain hares, both sometimes weighing over 5 kg (11 lb), are habitually hunted, the prey may be dismembered before being brought to the nest. [23][103] Unsuccessful attacks on both adult mule[104] and white-tailed deer (Odocoileus virginianus)[105] have been recently filmed but there is only a single account that mentions predation on an adult white-tailed deer. [4][12] Most reported species are trout and salmon from the genera Salmo and Oncorhynchus, although other species have also been hunted, including suckers (Catostomus), Sacramento perch (Archoptiles interruptus) and the northern pike (Esox lucius). Ellis, D.H., Tsengeg, P., Whitlock, P. & Ellis, M.H. The initial pursuer diverts the prey's attention by stooping while the second flies in unseen to make the kill. This is especially true in the contiguous Western United States outside of Washington state and coastal California where they often register as second, third or even fourth most represented family by remains. [190] Further east, in Israel, Bonelli's and golden eagles are competitors as well. [50], Cats are rarer in the eagle diet, forming 3.4% of nest remains in the French Alps and 2.2% in the Republic of Macedonia. Golden Eagle and Horned Owl. [11] Most mouse-sized mammals are too small to serve as regular prey, but in marginal habitats they can become more important, with studies revealing they sometimes form more than 10% of nest remains. Meadow pipits (Anthus pratensis) are the most represented species of small birds and are taken mainly in Scotland, making up to 3.5% of prey in the Inner Hebrides. [36] Up to seven wild species of goat, five other wild species of sheep and at least two wild gazelle species are confirmed golden eagle prey. Waterfowl are mostly recorded during the nesting season in Northern Europe, comprising 15.4% of prey in Gotland and 14.4% of prey in Belarus. [38] After mammals, other birds were most significant, comprising about 26.8% of prey. [72], In generally warmer areas of the Eurasian continent, the diverse pheasant family replaces the grouse as the significant group of birds in the golden eagle's diet. [184] Although the Eurasian eagle-owl is preyed upon by golden eagles (4 confirmed cases of golden eagles killing eagle-owls in Europe), in one case a golden eagle (age unspecified) was found amongst the prey in an eagle-owl nest. [38][44][81][82] The chukar is the most significant bird species in the diet in Nevada (at 5.4%) and the second most significant bird species in Washington state (at 11.8%). [53] In the Himalayan region, two very large pheasants, the Himalayan monal (Lophophorus impejanus) and the Himalayan snowcock (Tetraogallus himalayensis), are reportedly among the most significant prey for eagles. Following these periods without food, they will then gorge on up to 900 g (2.0 lb) at one sitting. There are several other large birds of prey that inhabit the Northern Hemisphere that may be attracted to the same prey, habitats and nesting sites as the golden eagles.

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